This provision requires the « link » between different CO2 emission trading systems – since measured emission reductions must avoid « double counts, » the transferred mitigation results should be considered as a gain on emission units for one part and as a reduction in emission units for the other party.  Due to the heterogeneity of NDCs and national emissions trading systems, ITMOs will provide a format for global connections under the aegis of the UNFCCC.  This provision also puts pressure on countries to implement emission management systems – if a country wants to use more cost-effective cooperative approaches to achieve its NPNs, they need to monitor carbon units for their economies.  « Oil has been an important economic security factor for many of these countries, » said David Vaskov of the World Resources Institute think tank in Washington, looking to the common interests of the Opec countries and the United States, the world`s largest oil producer. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making « efforts » to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was « reseming » the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Prior to the Paris meeting, the United Nations instructed countries to present detailed plans on how they intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These plans have been technically referred to as planned national contributions (INDC). As of December 10, 2015, 185 countries had introduced measures to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 or 2030. In 2014, the United States announced its intention to reduce its emissions by 26-28% from 2005 levels by 2025. To achieve this goal, the country`s Clean Power Plan should set limits for existing and projected emissions from power plants. China, the country that emits the most greenhouse gases as a whole, has set a goal of reaching its carbon dioxide emissions « around 2030 and making the best efforts to reach an early peak. » The Chinese authorities have also sought to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% compared to 2005.